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Courses and Events, Drylands Management, Organic Gardening

Greening the desert, regenerating ourselves

With Sunseed Desert Technology

Learn about Permaculture and how to design sustainable communities and regenerative ecosystems  in the desert!


More and more people are starting to realize that living in a more sustainable way is the best next move they can make going forward. Permaculture is a way to obtain practical skills to achieve this goal, as well as teaching us how to communicate in a non-violent way. Some people have found that a Permaculture Design Course represents a pivotal moment in their life, and marks a transition towards a healthier relationship both with ourselves and everyone and everything that surrounds us. 


Los Molinos del Río Aguas, Almería, Southern Spain  – an off-grid village, located in the “last oasis” of Southern Spain.   


October 4th – 20th, 2024




€580 until July (early bird discount) or €630 from July until end of September (includes 3 meals per day + supper on the arrival day and breakfast on departure day), as well as 90+ hours of permaculture classes (theory and practical). Classes will be given by several passionate permaculturists, 3 main facilitators plus invited experts, who will be sharing their years of experience obtained in different parts of the world. Participants also receive a certificate that they have completed a recognised PDC at the end of the course.

Book now

Register your interest by filling in the inscription form

Important note: Places can only be reserved once a EUR 200 non-refundable deposit has been made.

Course location

Ecovillage “Los Molinos del Río Aguas” Sorbas, Almería

Los Molinos del Río Aguas is an ancient Andalusian village with a rich historical background tied to the abundance of water and the presence of numerous mills for producing flour and olive oil. Nestled in Europe’s “last oasis” and protected by the Natura 2000 network as well as being designated a natural park, the Los Molinos del Río Aguas valley forms part of a Karst landscape reserve, characterized by gypsum rocks. This unique ecosystem is home to various endemic species of flora and fauna.

All the houses in the village are self-sustaining: water is sourced from an ancient irrigation system and pumped into the houses using a hydraulic ram pump, while electricity is generated through solar panels. This setup offers a serene and responsible lifestyle independent of government utilities. Once nearly abandoned by the locals, the village is now home to a cosmopolitan group of approximately 30 residents, with a steady flow of volunteers and visitors enriching its vibrant community throughout the year. 

There are several hiking trails along the river, and natural swimming pools for bathing. The valley lies 30 km from the coastal natural reserve, Cabo de Gata, known for its stunning, pristine beaches. The nearest city, Almeria, is 60 km away.

Sunseed Desert Technology

Sunseed is a non-formal education project, housed in Los Molinos del Río Aguas. The project has over 35 years of experience researching, learning, and experimenting with the regeneration of ecosystems, including research into the symbiotic relationships between mycorrhizal fungi and plant roots – fundamental to soil restoration.

Over the years, Sunseed has gradually evolved into an experiential education centre with visitors and volunteers working to support the ongoing tasks of the project, whilst simultaneously learning how to live in a low-impact way. Sunseed grows much of its food in the community kitchen garden, and they are currently in the process of establishing a food forest.

Course Description 

Permaculture aims to create systems that create harmonious connections between humans and the planet. The Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren coined the term in the 70’s, a combination of the words “permanent” and “agriculture. Permaculture ethics, principles, and design techniques were first used to develop sustainable agricultural systems as an alternative to the growth of agro-industry and the consumer economy. From these beginnings, the concept of Permaculture has expanded and diversified to cover nearly all types of human-based systems.

Permaculture design courses (PDCs) have been developed as an introduction to this way of thinking and teach the tools and techniques needed for participants to design their sustainable systems. These courses are taught through both theory and practice and weave in both ancestral knowledge and recent discoveries.  At Sunseed we showcase many examples of Permaculture in practice.

In this two-week PDC, we use the basic curriculum as set out by the UK Permaculture Association and supported by the Southeastern Spanish Permaculture Network (REPESEI).

The course will take place in a real context, in which the participants have the opportunity to gain first-hand knowledge of how, at Los Molinos, we harvest water, regenerate soil, plant trees and grow vegetables in a desert environment following Permaculture principles. During the course, we will also address aspects of social Permaculture, where we will focus on self-care, community living, equitable participation, and effective decision-making models. 

Course content

We will follow the course curriculum as set out by the UK Permaculture Association and supported by the Southeastern Spanish Permaculture Network (REPESEI).

In addition to the theory, we will do many practical exercises in order to learn by doing, as well as a group final design. This will be done by participants using a Permaculture design framework, as well as all the theoretical knowledge gained during the course, and the knowledge and experience each person brings.  

Main subjects covered:

  1. A short history of Permaculture, ethics and principles (Mollison y Holmgren)
  2. The design process itself: survey – analysis – design – implementation – maintenance – evaluation – tweaking.
  3. Designing for climate emergency: food independence, communities
  4. Soil structure and the soil ecosystem: fertility, sampling and analysis, management, regeneration (especially in arid environments). 
  5. Water: the water cycle, water availability, capture and storage, retention in the landscape.
  6. Plants/trees:  basic botany, the ecology of a forest, forest management, types of forests.
  7. Sustainable farming systems, including regenerative agriculture, natural farming, and syntropic agriculture
  8. Wellbeing and self-care: symbiotic nutrition, integrative medicine
  9. Natural building 
  10. Appropriate technology
  11. Social Permaculture: social and organizational structures, group facilitation, participatory decision making, transition economics.


  1. Reading the landscape + observation techniques; forest bathing
  2. Basic mapping: aspect, scale, how to mark out contour lines, trilateralization
  3. Contour line measuring
  4. Water retention systems
  5. Soil analysis 
  6. Soil regeneration techniques
  7. Regenerative agriculture systems
  8. Natural building 
  9. Design time

Who we are

Frances Osborn (teacher)

Frances is an ecologist with a degree in Environmental Sciences from Southampton University, UK, and a PhD in Insect Ecology from the Simón Bolívar University, Venezuela. In 2014, after 10 years working as a research scientist at the Eastern University, Venezuela, she returned to Europe where she did her first PDC in Brighton, UK. She has been studying and practicing permaculture ever since, and graduated with a Diploma in Applied Permaculture in March 2021. She has been teaching PDCs since 2019 at different venues, including Proyecto Rucula in Murcia and the Suryalila Yoga Retreat in Cadiz.  Frances has extensive experience in garden and agricultural systems, gained from her many volunteering placements, including two years at the first Ecosystem Restoration Camp in the dry highlands to the northeast of the Murcia region in southern Spain. She is currently helping to restore an old stone cottage near Calasparra, Murcia  using natural building techniques. Frances is currently secretary for Urban Street Forest, an association based in Holland and Spain that seeks to reforest degraded drylands, and is an active member of the Permaculture Network in south-eastern Spain. Frances has made volunteering her main lifestyle choice, a path which has led her to minimize her costs rather than maximize her income, and gives her the freedom to take up opportunities as they appear. Travel plays an important role in her life and the bicycle is her preferred mode of transport, as this enables her to slow down, appreciate the scenery, and enjoy the journey. 

Luis Simada (teacher)

Luis is a permaculture advisor, designer and teacher and also network facilitator. He is trained as a designer, group facilitator, permaculture teacher, fermenter and project coordinator. He also participates and actively contributes in different social, activist and alternative movements like the Iberian Southeast Permaculture Network (REPESEI), La Espiral del Sureste Ibérico, the Iberia Ecovillage Network (RIE), and the Cauac Editorial Nativa or Social Permaculture Movements. He is coordinating the Ecosystem Restoration Department at Sunseed. He has also been teaching different courses about Symbiotic Nutrition, Regenerative and Natural Agriculture or Appropriate Technologies. Luis  really appreciates discovering new ways to create resilience and communities, that’s why he is also Simada, traveling around Iberia supporting and designing alternative projects while continue to learn from each one of them. He loves listening, expressing his emotions, creating new ferments and healthy recipes, doing experiments, designing social solutions, playing, wild nature, ancient trees, ancestral traditions and live music.

Juanma Pinar (teacher)

Juanma is an Andalusian biologist mostly focused on botany and agro-ecology (University of Seville, SP) with a Masters in winemaking & viti-vinicole environment (University of Bordeaux, FR). After a few years of working/traveling around the world in diverse kinds of vineyards and making different styles of wines, he started to worry about the big impact this huge industry has on the environment (such as waste of water, death of soils, harmful pesticides, elitist markets, and so on) so he came back home and deeply started to melt into permaculture philosophy. 

He obtained his PDC in early 2020 in “Centro Extremeño de Permacultura La Caraba” (Cáceres), and a following “introduction to bioconstruction” course in Alcañiz (Erasmus+, Teruel), plus a certificate of “nature activities instructor -educational and social potential-” from Andalucía GDR (Development Rural Group). Then he started to collaborate with a community garden integrated in a natural park in his town (Ecohuerto Los Toruños, Cadiz) and joined climate justice movements such as Extinction Rebellion and “Ecologistas en Acción”. In parallel he was working as environmental educator for different local enterprises (Ecoherencia, Caucenatura) mostly centered on agro-ecology, nature hiking and other active learning services for public schools. 

At the moment he is leading the gardens’ team in Sunseed, which includes work such as: fixing and redesigning the irrigation systems, restoring poor soils with -animal/green manure, compost and mulching- refreshing the old seedbank, replacing losts with new plants adapted to drought, researching on edible and medicinal wild-plants-based preparations, improving associations/rotations of crops, and a long etcetera of learn-by-doing processes.

Marco De Angelis (assistant teacher)

My journey began in Rome, where I was born 33 years ago with a deep love for nature. Growing up, I pursued my passion by studying Forestry Sciences and Nature Conservation, which took me on exchanges to Slovenia, Portugal, and Germany, broadening my understanding of sustainable resource management.

Completing my studies with a doctoral program in wood technologies and composite materials at the University of Hamburg, I discovered the potential of recycled materials for social housing, leading to collaborations with Ethiopia and South Africa.

Feeling a stronger connection to nature, I moved to Spain, settling in Los Molinos de Rio Aguas, an off-grid village. Here, I immersed myself in local projects and started cultivating food in our garden, finding fulfillment in sustainable living.

Now, I’m thrilled to share my journey and passion for permaculture in this course, eager to learn and collaborate for a more sustainable future.

Ricardo Riquelme (invited expert)

Ricardo is a permaculture designer, farmer specialized in successional agroforestry systems, efficient water management, biological pest control and zero tillage. Creator of the permaculture project  “Mano Verde”, based in El Bosque (Pilar de la Horadada, Alicante) where they cultivate and regenerate the environment based on syntrophic agriculture. Apart from offering seasonal products, they recover old seeds, offer consulting and design of farms and also training for farmers and individuals.

Mónica Adán

Mónica Adán is office coordinator at Sunseed Project, managing the administration, education and communication departments. She also collaborates in the Yes to Sustainability network where she is in charge of the administration and management of European youth projects and has gained experience in planning, writing, coordinating and executing grant projects. She has visited numerous ecovillages and ecoprojects all over Europe to learn more about the different living alternatives that can be created. She collaborates with projects that can help young people to discover their passions and empower them by developing their own projects.

Ashley Sheets

Ashley Sheets is a degrowth and environmental labour activist who works as project manager and sustainable living coordinator for Proyecto Sunseed, a non-formal education project. Her work is centred on environmental stewardship and social change, working to make more sustainable forms of living accessible and intersectional in the day to day. Her background is in degrowth, political ecology and environmental justice, and specifically focuses on the intersections where environmental movements and labour activism meet. She also collaborates with the International Degrowth Network, the Feminisms and Degrowth Alliance, and is a founding member of the Working Class Climate Alliance.

Our certifying Association

REPESEI, the Southeastern Spanish Permaculture Network.

Towards the end of the 1980s the seeds of the REPESEI (Red de Permacultura del Sureste Ibérico) were sown by a small group of locals and travelers. 

This small group organized gatherings, workshops and courses, during which ideas of alternative ways of understanding life began to germinate and grow, answering the questions and needs of the individuals and groups that attended them.

In 1996, Rosa Mejuto along with a women’s group, and inspired by Permaculture Movements and Natural Agriculture, founded the REPESEI.  The number of gatherings and Permaculture Projects increased, from which a network started to spread – and is still growing.

Since then there have been a large diversity of workshops and courses given and promoted by the network, among which we can highlight those by Jairo Restrepo (Columbia) and Nacho Simón (Mexico), that have taught us new ways to care for life in the soil under our feet, improving its fertility, and harmonizing the relationships between it and the plants we cultivate. Many of us now make our own bio-preparations. 

Furthermore, there have been many Permaculture gatherings held at many sites from Alicante to Málaga. Currently there are 4 gatherings yearly in Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn, as well as a mutual support network (TAM – Tragozando Apoyo Mutuo) that support projects throughout south-eastern Spain. 


October 4th to 20th, 2024

You should arrive on Friday, October 4th in the afternoon / evening. Classes will start on Saturday, October 5th in the morning.

The course will end with the design presentations on Saturday, October 19th and an evening celebration. Participants should leave on Sunday, October 20th before 1:00 pm.  There will be one free day mid-course. Classes will start daily at 9:00 am after breakfast and end at 8:00 pm before supper. We always start the day with a morning circle to check in with each other, and inform about the day’s programme and any logistics


The cost for the PDC will be EUR 580 until July (early bird discount) or €630 from July until end of September + accommodation costs and includes:

  • Teaching (theory and practice)  by a diverse group of passionate permaculturists all of whom bring their own knowledge and experience in the different permaculture fields (or Permaculture Petals).
  • An officially recognised certificate at the end of the course. 
  • All meals and non-alcoholic beverages
  • We provide warm and cold showers and there is room to do collective laundry.
  • At Los Molinos there is lots of space to be on your own or to walk through the beautiful valley and ravine. 
  • Telephone coverage and Wifi 

Food and Beverages

All food and (non alcoholic) drinks will be provided during the whole course. We serve vegan/vegetarian food at Sunseed, but please talk to us about special wishes for food or allergies.

Coffee, herbal teas, and drinking water will be available throughout the course. You can also bring private snacks and treats for your well-being with you.

Accommodation (separate cost)

There is a choice of a mixed dorm (sleeps 6), triple, or double rooms (limited availability). All rooms with shared bathroom. There are also some spots available for tents. Please contact Juanma (contact details below) for details.

Booking and cancellations: Register your interest by filling in the inscription form here:

Important note: Places can only be reserved once a EUR 200 non-refundable deposit has been made.

What if my plans change: A full refund minus the deposit can be made up to one month (September 4th) before the start of the course. This will be reduced to a 50% refund (minus the deposit) two weeks (September 20th) before the start of the course, and a 25% refund (minus the deposit) two days (October 2nd) before the start of the course. This applies to the cost of the course only.

How to get here

Los Molinos del Río Aguas is a small village located in Sorbas, in the southeast of Spain, 45 minutes by car from Almería, the closest city.

Since Sorbas is a small town, we will organize a pick-up in order to let you all arrive safely at the placement. Therefore, the best connection will be to get to Almería bus station, and from there take the public transport to Sorbas. We will pick you up there and take you to Los Molinos.

If your idea is to fly to Spain, the nearest airport is Almería Airport (LEI). You can usually fly cheaper, though, if you go to Málaga Airport (AGP) or Alicante (ALC)

  • From Málaga Airport to Almería, take a bus to Almería. The journey takes approximately 3 hours and 30 minutes and costs 22 EURO (one way).: Check bus timetables AGP-Almería here!
  • From Almería Estación Autobús. There are several buses per day to Sorbas. The schedule varies depending on the day:
    • – Mondays to Fridays: 8:30, 11:00, and 15:30.
    • – Saturdays: 11:00.
    • – Sundays: 8:30 and 11:00.

  • From Alicante to Almería you can take a bus to Murcia which has daily direct connections, and from there take a transfer to Vera.  Then from Vera, there is the connection to Sorbas by bus. Check here the bus timetables Vera-Sorbas.

Make sure to check the bus timetables and availability in advance, especially for connections from Málaga and Alicante.

Please note that activities will start on Saturday, the 5th of October at 8:30 am, so please organize yourself in order to be able to arrive on Friday evening.  

Activities will end on the evening of Saturday, the 19th of October, so you can plan your trip back to your country starting from Sunday morning (20/10/2024).

Book now

Register your interest by filling in the inscription form 

Contact details

Juanma Pinar: +34 605 125 477


Drylands Management, Research, Tutorial

As the growing conditions around Sunseed are very harsh with very little rain and soil depleted from nutrients, it is very important to use innovative methods to protect plants from the harshest sun in the summer and frost in the winter.

At the moment in the Arboretum, the application of mulch (mostly reeds) is tested to see its benefits for growth along with a new, water saving design for planting. Mulch is basically any layer spread to cover the soil, be it biomass, mineral mulch, such as stones or gravel. Our mulch of choice is reed due to availability, enhanced with some weeds as we pull them out. The most important benefit of mulching in an arid area, such as Los Molinos, is that it reduces the evaporation of water from the ground keeping the soil moist longer. It works also as protection against wind, winter frost and scorching heat of the summer. An additional benefit in organic mulch is that it will eventually decompose adding good quality, nutrient rich soil to the barren desert and while still in place, it will attract insects to add to the biodiversity. Some of the insects can even be beneficial to the plant as they can be predators of some more harmful insects.

3 REDUCEIllustration : Picture of one part of the Arboretum, covered in reed mulch

On the negative side for organic mulch, it will need replacing from time to time as it decomposes. It should also be noted that decomposition of the mulch requires nitrogen, which is available in fresh plant material, fertile soils and in fertilizers, so it is important to try and see to it that there is enough nitrogen available for the decomposition to not compromise the nitrogen available for the plant to grow.

We applied to some plants in the Arboretum a simple design for improving the irrigation system. The design include a trench around the tree filled with stones in terms to act as a water channel to irrigate the tree. In addition, we cover it with biomass and thorny branches to take extra protection agains wildbores.

other mulchDesign and methodology. a. Dig a trench around the plant (above and profile views). b. Put some thorny branches along the trench. c. Place some stones. d. Plant the plants e. Addition of mulch on the top.


Illustration : Tabacco with trench and mulch, surrounded by Aloe Vera which does not need mulch

In addition, a research was carried out to find out which plants benefit from mulch and what type and amount should be applied.

Table : water requirements and mulch recommendations for the plants in the Arboretum

Plants Water requirements Mulch need Comments
Lavender Dry conditions No
Rosemary Dry conditions Organic mulch for infertile soil No mulch but rock or gravel in normal conditions fungus diseases if overwatering
Lemon grass Hot and humid conditions A thick layer to keep the humidity and to protect from frost in the winter
Aloe vera Dry conditions Only mulch to avoid frost Moisture retention to be avoided, so no fresh organic material
Yarrow Dry to medium conditions 5 cm of organic mulch to avoid weeds Avoid overwatering for root rot and mildew
Lemon verbena humid conditions A thick layer to keep the humidity and to protect from frost in the winter
Calendula Full or partial sun and watering moderately Mulches help (weeds, pests, water evaporation…)
European fan palm Sunny and warm but tolerate cool temperature (until 7C) Mulches help keep shallow palm roots from drying out quickly Do not keep wet all the time
Pomegranate semi-arid mild-temperate to subtropical climate Mulch during spring and summer Water thoroughly twice a week on light soils and once a week on clay soils
Myoporum Dry climates Mulches help. Note : not directly base of the plant, let a sapce (4 to 6 inch layer)
Mediterranean buckthorn Normal to moist Mulch for connserving moisture
Cassie flower Dry/desertic climate leaf or bark mulch
Wattel Hot/dry climate Mulches help
Almond sub-tropical dry warm climate Mulches help. pine trees or alpha-grass Does not like exceed of humidity
kidney vetch dry grasslands and rocky environments with calcareous soil
Ruscus aculeatus – Rusco Dry and moist locations Mulches are used
Maguey – Agave americana Drought tolerant Gravel or rocks Well drained conditions. Avoid watering your agave in fall to help it toughen up for winter.
Kermes oak Dry, sunny slopes A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth
Sweet orange Moderate moisture 5-10cm of mulch, spread on at least a little bit larger area than the canopy. Leave 30cm area clear of mulch around the trunk to avoid rot and vermin Pine mulch would be ideal as orange prefers slightly acidic soil and it also passes water and air easily to the ground
African tamarisk Adapted to all conditions A thick layer of mulch is preferred as the leaves contain salt, which will increase the salinity of the soil when they fall
Common fig Moist conditions, weekly watering Thick layer of mulch to keep in the moisture Yellowing or dropping of leaves or fruit is a sign of drought stress
Hazel Can tolerate drought but needs watering Thick layer of mulch for moisture retention Don’t let mulch touch the stem or trunk of hazel as it may cause it to rot
Black hawthorn Moist soil, low tolerance to drought Thick layer of mulch for moisture retention and frost protection
Loquat Good drainage, doesn’t tolerate flooding. Otherwise adaptable 10-15cm of mulch Keep the trunk area clear of mulch for air to circulate to avoid rot
Peruvian pepper No soaking or flooding, otherwise adaptable to many moisture levels Any kind of mulch can be added
Opuntia Dry conditions, good drainage No mulch, or a little bit of dry mulch for weed control
Siberian elm Prefers moist soil but tolerates drought as well. No flooding Thick layer of mulch for moisture retention
Velvet mezquite Tolerates dry conditions well At least 3 meters in diameter of mulch for young plants. Older plants will benefit from moisture retention as well
Holly oak Tolerates dry conditions but thrives when some moisture is present 5-10cm of mulch. Only dry mulch around the root crown if any and no watering around root crown Dry mulch helps repel slugs and grubs while moist mulch may cause root disease
marjoram Draught tolerant but likes moisture. Doesn’t tolerate frosts. Mulch is beneficial but it is good to let it dry out between watering Cut back watering during the cool months and add more mulch for frost protection
Aleppo pine Good drainage, weekly watering in the summer, less in the winter 5-8cm of coarse organic mulch leaving the root crown bare to avoid disease Doesn’t tolerate flooding or extreme temperatures
Carob tree Fertile soils Wood chip mulch is the best, likes the provided nutrients from decomposing mulch
Olive tree Moist conditions 10-15cm of mulch. Straw is the best Leave the base of the tree bare Likes the added nutrients from decomposing mulch. Also benefits from moisture retention and cooling of the soil
Cork oak Mediterranean climate mulch the tree, keeping the mulch away from the trunk Not use fertilizer, decaying mulch is enough

Teniendo en cuenta que las condiciones en climas semiáridos son difíciles, es importante usar las mejores maneras posibles para maximizar los recursos hídricos y proteger las plantas de extremas temperaturas.

En el Arboretum, tratamos de ver el efecto del acolchado para maximizar el uso del agua. El Acolchado es, básicamente, una capa protectora del suelo. Puede ser tanto biomasa, acolchado mineral como piedras. El exceso de restos de caña proveniente de las limpieza de la acequia es la utilizarla como acolchado. El mayor beneficio del acolchado es que reduce la evaporación del agua y mantener húmedo el suelo. También protege de vientos fuertes, heladas y el calor más ardiente de verano. Además, acolchados orgánicos tienen beneficios adicionales. Como van descomponiéndose con tiempo, van añadiendo suelo de buena calidad, rico en nutrientes. A su vez proveen de hábitat para insectos y reptiles.

3 REDUCEFoto : Jardín Botánico cubierto de acolchado

En un jardín, un acolchado además de los beneficios ya mencionados, no deja que las malas hierbas crezcan. Pero por contra, también hay que tener en cuenta que la descomposición del mismo acolchado requiere nitrógeno del mismo suelo para permitir actividad bacteriana en el proceso de descomposición.

Aparte del acolchado, a los frutales y plantas medicinales les hemos labrado la tierra y cavado una zanja donde regar. La zanja se rellena de piedras y el resto con biomasa. Como protección contra jabalís se han añadido ramas con espinas (ver diseño).

other mulchDiseño y metodología. a. Cavar una zanja alrededor de la planta (planta y vista de perfil). b. Colocar ramas con espinas. c. Poner piedras a lo largo de la zanja. d. Plantar las plantas e. Cubrir con acolchado.

2 REDUCEFoto: Tabaco con zanja y acolchado, rodeado de aloe vera, el cual no necesita de acolchado

Diferentes tipos de plantas requieren diferente condiciones de humedad. Por tanto los acolchados pueden ser más convenientes en un tipo de planta u otro (ver tabla).

Tabla: Condiciones ambientales y recomendaciones de acolchado para las plantas en el Jardín Botánico


Condiciones ambientales




Ambiente seco



Ambiente seco

Acolchado orgánico en suelos yermos

Roca o grava en condiciones normales

Enfermedades fúngicas si se riega demasiado

Limoncillo / Hierba de limón

Ambiente de calor y humedad

Una capa gruesa para mantener la humedad y proteger de las heladas en el invierno

Aloe vera

Ambiente seco

Solo para evitar las heladas

Para evitar la retención de humedad no usar materia orgánica fresca, verde


Ambiente entre seco y poco húmedo

5 cm de acolchado orgánico para evitar malas hierbas

Evitar el exceso de agua por posible deterioro de la raíz y moho

Hierba Luisa

Ambiente húmedo

Una capa gruesa para mantener la humedad y proteger de las heladas


Luz solar total o parcial y riego moderado

Acolchado ayuda contra las malas hierbas, pestes, evaporación del agua, etc.

Palmito europeo

Sol y calor, pero tolera temperaturas bajas de hasta 7C

El acolchado evita que las raíces superficiales se sequen muy rápido

Evitar que el suelo esté húmedo constantemente


Clima semiárido con temperaturas suaves y/o subtropical

Durante primavera y verano

Regar dos veces en semana en suelos arenosos y una vez en suelos arcillosos


Ambiente seco

No directamente sobre la base de la planta, dejar un espacio de 6 a 8 cm


Condiciones entre normal y húmedo

Indicado para conservar la humedad

Acacia espinosa

Clima seco/desértico

Acolchado de corteza y hojas

Acacia pycnantha

Clima seco y de calor

El acolchado ayuda


Clima sub-tropical seco y de calor

El acolchado ayuda. De pino y de alfalfa.

Evitar el exceso de humedad


Praderas secas y zonas rocosas de suelos calcáreos


Zonas tanto húmedas como secas

El acolchado es aconsejable

Maguey – Agave americana

Tolerante a la sequía

Grava y rocas

Suelos o zonas con buen drenaje. Evitar regarlo en otoño para que para que se fortalezca para el invierno


Laderas secas y soleadas

El acolchado de sus hojas repele las babosas, larvas de insectos, etc, pero no usar las hojas verdes ya que pueden limitar el crecimiento de la planta


Humedad moderada

5-10cm de acolchado repartido sobre una superficie un poco mayor que el follaje del árbol. Dejar un área de 30 cm sin acolchar alrededor del tronco para evitar plagas y deterioro de las raíces

El acolchado de pino sería el ideal ya que este árbol prefiere suelos ácidos y también deja pasar el agua y el aire fácilmente hacia el suelo

Tamarix africana

Se adapta a todas las condiciones

Una capa ancha de acolchado sería lo mejor ya que las hojas contienen sal, incrementando la salinidad del suelo cuando se deshoja


Ambiente húmedo, riego semanal

Se recomienda una capa espesa de acolchado para mantener la humedad

Amarillamiento o caída de hojas y frutos es señal de estrés por sequía


Puede soportar sequías pero necesita ser regado

Capa gruesa de acolchado para retener la humedad

Evitar que el acolchado toque el tronco ya que lo puede deteriorar

Espino negro

Suelos húmedos con poca tolerancia a la sequía

Colocar una capa gruesa de acolchado para ayudar a la retención de humedad y proteger de las heladas


Suelos con buen drenaje ya que no tolera inundaciones. Adaptable al resto de ambientes

10-15cm de acolchado

Dejar el área alrededor del tronco libre de acolchado para circulación del aire y evitar deterioro del mismo

Pimienta peruana

No empapar o inundar o empapar, pero se adapta al resto de condiciones húmedas

Cualquier acolchado es apropiado


Ambiente seco y suelos con buen drenaje

No se aconseja acolchado salvo una capa fina seca para evitar malas hierbas

Olmo siberiano

Preferiblemente suelos húmedos pero tolera secos. No inundar

Capa gruesa de acolchado para retener la humedad

Prosopis velutina

Tolera bien el ambiente seco

Por lo menos, acolchado de unos 3 m de diámetro para las plantas jóvenes. El resto también se beneficiaría por la retención de humedad


Tolera ambientes secos pero crece muy bien si hay algo de humedad

5-10cm de acolchado, que sea seco y solo sobre las principales raíces si hay y no regar la zona

El acolchado seco ayuda contra larvas y pestes mientras que el acolchado húmedo puede dañar las raíces


Tolera las sequías pero le gusta la humedad. No aguanta las heladas

El acolchado es beneficioso pero sería ideal dejarlo secar entre riegos

Reducir el riego durante los meses más fríos y añadir más acolchado para proteger de las heladas

Pino carrasco

Necesita de suelos con un buen drenaje, riego semanal en el verano y menos en el invierno

5-8cm de acolchado orgánico de grano grueso evitando cubrir las raíces principales por enfermedades

No soporta inundaciones ni temperaturas extremas


Suelos fértiles

Acolchado con astillas de madera es lo mejor.

Le gusta los nutrientes que provienen de la descomposición del acolchado


Ambiente húmedo

10-15cm de acolchado. Paja es lo mejor. Evitar cubrir la base del árbol

Le gusta los nutrientes que provienen de la descomposición del acolchado. También se beneficia de la retención de humedad por el acolchado y enfriamiento del suelo


Clima mediterráneo

Acolchado pero lejos del tronco

No usar fertilizantes ya que es suficiente con los nutrientes que obtiene de la descomposición del acolchado