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Drylands Management

The term Bokashi comes from Japanese and it means a fermented organic matter. We chose to apply this technique for its several assets (developed later), but with some adjustments according to our resources available around us.

Basically, a Bokashi system need sources of Nitrogen, Carbon and other nutrients which will be fermented by Effective Microorganism (EM) with the help of sugar additions and material with porosity to enhance their growing.This technique provides fertilizers as a basic compost, it is very fast (around two weeks), and the final result is very close to a natural humus. It contains EM and the growth factor hormones added through a Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ) and a higher C/N rates than a compost. What better material can we ask for our work in soil regeneration in the Drylands Department?

So how did we make it? We used:

  • around 400kg of humanure mixed with
  • 100kg of soil
  • some straws chopped
  • ashes for the Carbon content (and also regulate the pH)
  • coffee grounds for the porosity and their nutrient content
  • diluted pee.

This is our appropriation of the Bokashi system; otherwise the best materials are rice bran hull, any manure, compost, garden soil and some molasses.

Peter preparing layers of the bokashi compost pile

Then we raised the humidity rate up to 60% by adding the water and a mix of EM, FPJ and sugar. Our EM had been home made with some soil harvested under canes and put in appropriate conditions to grow. This is called Indigenous MicroOrganism culture (IMO).

Finally we’ll have to follow the temperature of this mud cake during two weeks and turning it when needed (from 1 to 3 times a day) and eventually harvest the final product – the nutrients for the trees used in reforestation, made mainly from human output.

At Sunseed nothing goes to waste, especially our toilet waste. This week I had the opportunity to help build a Bokashi compost from scratch with Dimitri in the Drylands department. It’s quite an inventive process, using all natural material to create rich hummus in just 2 weeks!

It feels like a chemistry project; 3 litres of this, two tablespoons of that and hey presto we have soil. As we were building it Dimitri explained each step and why we do it, which really helped me understand how amazing a process it really is. Permaculture is revolution disguised as gardening!

Peter, short term visitor

For further information we can advise you to get a look at the “NATURE FARMING MANUAL. A handbook of preparations, techniques and organic amendments inspired by Nature Farming and adapted to locally available materials and needs in the Western Visayas region of the Philippines, Helen Jensen, Leopoldo Guilaran, Rene Jaranilla & Gerry Garingalao.” It has been our guideline for the Bokashi principles.

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Drylands Management, Organic Gardening

If you are interested in seeds conservation and wild plants, this post is probably for you.

An essential part of our drylands department is the regeneration of the local vegetation, through the collection and reproduction of wild seeds. We have a small but precious seed bank where we store seeds harvested in the area, so that we can sow them in the following planting season. I have been looking out for initiatives, companies or seed banks that could give us valuable inputs.

Last week we finally managed to reach Cordoba and meet Candido Galvez from Semillas Silvestres (Wild Seeds), a pretty unique company. Candido Galvez started ”Semillas Silvestres” 25 years ago, with the goal of producing native seeds and improving seed technology. Him and his 7 people team are working on the reproduction of trees, shrubs and mainly herbaceous species.

A crucial point is understanding what do they intend as native seeds. Native here is synonym of autochthonous.  ”Semillas Silvestres” doesn’t work with forestry species, neither with endangered species. They look mainly for neglected species, species with an unknown use (until now), but that are beneficial for biodiversity and the sustainability of agroecological systems.

Why conserving and reproducing wild seeds?

Candido and his team are hunting for the most interesting native species which could serve purposes of ecological restoration, landscaping, or agroecosystem sustainability. They have participated in multiple international and European research projects, lately focusing on the use of native species for soil erosion control in olive plantations (such as CUVrEN Olivar).

In order to select relevant species, ”Semillas Silvestres” uses a matrix, which matches the native species traits and the needs of the crops they will be working with, or the needs of the growers, depending on the situations. Some traits are extremely important, such as seed replicability: are the seeds I want to work with easy to reproduce? At what cost? Germination rates also need to be taken into account. I need to pick species which can be easily germinated, or again, easily enough, and at an acceptable cost. Also, can I actually conserve my seeds for longer periods? Some seeds, if dried, do not survive (recalcitrantseeds, as opposed to orthodox). This makes their conservation impossible. Finally, seeds with very low dormancy are also avoided. A dormant seed is like a ‘sleeping’ seed, waiting for favorable environmental conditions to sprout. Seeds with very low dormancy can be a very big problem for farmers as their germination cannot be controlled.

A seed journey

The seeds you buy from ”Semillas Silvestres” have actually not been collected in the wild. Candido and his team do not want to harvest everything from nature. This is because they want to protect the wild population, be more efficient in their production, and be able to implement technologies that couldn’t be used otherwise.

So they only collect the ‘parents’ seeds in the wild. In the harvesting process there is a clear difference between native seeds and commercial food crops. With native seeds there’s no such thing as selection, as the goal is almost the opposite: provide as much variety as possible. There are protocols followed in order to minimize the seeds selection, and to ensure that the sample collected represent the widest variety of characteristics of each species. The ideal situation would be a representation of all the variability that takes place in wilderness, in order to ensure larger success for the native species when grown in different contexts. For example when planting wild seeds for ground cover, the needs of each olive plantation are different: soils, rainfall, climate. That’s why genetic variety is an essential component.

The ‘parents’ seeds are reproduced in the plots of ”Semillas Silvestres” for a few years, until they have enough seeds to bring their product to the market. These plots are called Seed Production Areas (SPAs), a concept spreading all over the world, with the goal of sustaining the natural production of wild seeds, so that we can rely on a higher supply of these precious species, without actually affecting their natural environment. In the SPAs more efficient technologies of seed harvesting can be applied, to ensure larger production. Interestingly enough, seeds grown here are not organically certified, as an organic production is not cost-effective.

The harvested seeds are then dried and cleaned. Humidity is the first cause of viability loss, that’s why the drying process is one of the most important. We then move into the quality control room. Here viability, germination and purity of seed samples are evaluated. Viability basically tells us whether a seed is alive or not. A seed can be dormant but still viable, so still capable of germinating under the right conditions. This is why viability is in this case more important than germination rate.

Our journey ends in the storage rooms, with a pleasant smell of dry grass. Boxes and crates full of seeds ready to be shipped out fill up the walls. A great tip from Candido: as a general rule for basic seeds conservation, he advises us to always check temperature and humidity. Their sum should not be higher than 60. If you want to conserve your seeds properly, keep your moisture levels down, that’s easier and more cost effective than lowering temperature.

If you want to find more information about wild seeds conservation, give a look at the European Native Seeds Conservation Network (ENSCONET) website, where you can find harvesting and conservation manuals.

And now, back to our seedbank!

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Drylands Management, Sustainable Living

By Drylands assistant Margaux

With Spring in full bloom in the valley, the Drylands and Sustainable Living departments have been out walking with volunteers to collect the capers that are starting to grow and preserving them in preparation for summer salads. Have you ever picked capers? The pickled capers we use as seasoning are actually the buds of the plant called “Capparis spinosa”. They need to be picked before they turn into these lovely white flowers. It is preferable to pick the smaller buds which have more flavour.

It’s important to follow some basic guidance if you are planning to pick plants in the wild. First of all, make sure that you are not in a preserved zone.  There must be, at least, 5 plants of the same species in the area you are planning to pick. Then, do not collect more than 20-30% of the plant’s fruits or flowers, so it is still able to reproduce. Another last tip, try not to pick close to roads; you shouldn’t be closer than 50 meters from the nearest road.

“Its huge pink-and-white flowers  bristling with stamens and anthers, and its tough thorny leaves were nourished by roots that burrowed for moisture more than a hundred feet into the parched earth.” – South from Granada, Gerard Brenan

Preserving capers is simple –  to start off with you need just a water and salt mixture to soak them. This water needs to be changed every three or four days, four times. One the soaking process is done, you can preserve the capers in vinegar, and with any other herbs you like. Besides being a tasty addition to salads (or as a pizza topping at our famous pizza parties!) capers are known to be powerful anti-oxidants and to help in circulation of blood – so a perfect complement to our healthy sustainable diet here at Sunseed.

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Drylands Management

This year in the Drylands Department, we started work on a herb spiral in the Arboretum to demonstrate a water-efficient growing technique for dry areas. First initiated by our volunteer Ulrike, the herb spiral project had then been taken over by Giulia and Margaux – now we’re excited to say that the beautiful project is now finished!

Here in Almeria, the driest region in Europe, building such a spiral can present many benefits.

Efficient water usage

First, the spiral is designed in such a way that it retains the moisture at its base. This design allows a large variety of herbs to grow as it has both a drier zone at the top and a moist area at the bottom.  Our herb spiral will then probably see plants that don’t drink much, like rosemary, oregano and thyme, grow at its top part. The water management of the spiral is such that no water is wasted. The runoff water is collected and absorbed by the thirsty plants positioned at the bottom of the spiral.

Adapted to microclimates

In the same way, the spiral’s design also helps the herbs to benefit from diverse microclimates due to the variety of positions allowed : sunny, sheltered and shady. The top part of the spiral will then be perfect to grow herbs like rosemary, sage and thyme that prefer a sunny position, while the bottom part of the spiral will fit better to shade-loving herbs such as mints.

Heat retention

Besides, the stones used to build the spiral retain heat absorbed during the day, keeping the spiral warm when temperatures drop at night. Retaining the heat can be really useful in a semi-arid climate, where we usually face huge temperature gaps between daytime and night time.

A unique garden feature

More than a practical tool that allows to grow a variety of herbs under the best conditions in a dry area, the herb spiral is also of aesthetic interest. Inspired by nature itself, the design of the spiral ramp is irresistible to the eye and draws it as a focal point in the garden. The stones used for our spiral are carefully chosen to be aesthetically pleasing to our visitors’ eyes.

We’re looking forward to reaping the benefits of our herb spiral in delicious, flavoursome dishes in the months to come!

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Drylands Management

As an EVS volunteer, I wanted to look back over the last semester I spent in Sunseed as an assistant of Dryland Management Department. Originally coming from a completely different background, I had to learn everything from the very beginning. Before I leave and go back to my daily life in Paris, I wanted to share some parts of this fulfilling experience:

When I first arrived in February, Dryland Department was dedicating part of its time to planting different tree species on Allan’s land, as a part of its reforestation duty. Experimenting with carob trees, we could note after a couple of months that the place where the tree was planted had a crucial impact on its survival. Planting in the shadow and in the terraced part of the land look to have increased the chances of survival of the tree. We also observed that some of the species we planted, such as the Salsola oppositifolia, were more likely to survive in this arid environment.

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Cleaning behind the compostero

In April, Dryland Department initiated a long-term project which was to clean and improve the area of the “compostero” where is kept the hummanure compost next to the vivero. The idea was to provide more shadow to the compost in order to keep it quite moist during the heat of the Almerian summer. We first substituted all the trash stored behind the compostero with soil. We wanted to use this strategic spot to plant trees that will provide natural shade to the compost.

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Extracting Auxina from sprouted lentils

In May, Dryland Management department lead an experiment on the use of Auxina to help stimulate plants’ roots growth. The Auxina is a hormone naturally secreted by the plants and is known to help the stimulation of plant’s roots and speed up its development. We tried to extract some from sprouted lentils, getting a mixture out of the roots and water. The mixture was supposed to be ready to use after being kept 24 hours in the dark. Unfortunately, it turned out that the use of the mixture didn’t show any notable effect.

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Visiting Rodalquilar botanical garden

In June, Dryland Department drove a couple of volunteers to the botanical garden of Rodalquilar while the trees were still blossoming. The end of the spring was the perfect time to identify the different species thanks to their flowers. Rodalquilar’s botanical garden gives interesting details about the properties of the plants that grow all around the semi-desert of Almeria. The carob tree, for example, has been used for a long time, in the region, for its medicinal properties as syrup for coughing.The same month, the Dryland coordinator, Elena, helped with volunteers, ended the construction of a caña roof to the compostero, providing a bit of the indispensable shadow during summertime.

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Before and after with the caña roof

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Drylands Management

Life in the Drylands department has been busy over the last couple of months. In February we gathered a large amount of netting and sewed up the holes with yarn from our sewing box, to use as a cover for the tree nursery. Temperatures soar from May onwards, so we prepared a protective net, which provides shelter and shade for the seedlings as they grow.

Our volunteer Guilia has started to build a herb spiral in the arboretum that will contain cuttings from herbs grown in the gardens. This is positioned in a shady area but will get plenty of sunlight in the middle of the day. We had a communal activity to bring about 15 buckets of soil down from the area behind the main house to help her build the structure. She’s using rocks and old pieces of terracotta to line the growing edge of the spiral. Herb spirals make great use of vertical space by spiralling upwards instead of outwards, and make use of several microclimates around the mound.

The compost piles in the arboretum need frequent watering because the climate is extremely dry. To help keep the humidity in, we add organic matter from weeding in the arboretum and the wastewater systems, then add a protective layer, here out of cane leaves, but plastic as well if we have it.

Next in Drylands we’re going to make maps of the area and redo some of the signs and labels for the trees and nursery areas. They’re highly informative but in need of a revamp!

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The aquifer of the Aguas river is being overexploited by more than 330 %. The river itself is in great danger of disappearance. If this continues, this will mean the end of life for this unique ecosystem and also assume the end of many farmers livelihoods who depend on this water. In the meantime thousands and thousands of olive trees are being planted to be cultivated in a super intensive manner, which means selling the scarce water of the ecosystem in the form of olive oil. This precious resource is being hoarded by a few.

We are demanding this abuse to stop in several ways. One of these is to organise the population of the affected municipalities to propose social, direct and informative actions. Help us to spread the information about the next meeting in Sorbas, September 28.

Read more about the Ecocide of the Aguas River: http://ecocideelriodeaguas.org/

El aquífero del Río de Aguas está sobreexplotado en mas de un 330%. El Río mismo está en gran peligro de desaparición. Esto significa el fin de la vida de todo un ecosistema único protegido por el Paraje Natural, suponiendo el fin del proyecto vital para muchos agricultores que dependen del agua proveniente de ahí. Mientras tanto se están plantando miles y miles de olivos de manera super intensiva, vendiendo el agua del ecosistema en forma de aceite de oliva. Del recurso de todos se aprovechan unos pocos.

Estamos intentando parar este abuso de varias maneras. Una de ellas es organizar la población de los municipios afectados para proponer acciones sociales, directas e informativas. Ayúdanos a difundir la información sobre la próxima reunión en Sorbas, el 28 de septiembre.

Leer mas sobre el tema de Ecocidio del Río de Aguas: http://ecocideelriodeaguas.org/

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Drylands Management, Sustainable Living

We have been harvesting some carobs in three trees placed in Los Molinos del Río Aguas. We collected the fruits by hand but when they were not easily accessible we used a long stick to knock down the fruits to catch them in a net placed on the ground. Sometimes we even climbed like monkeys through the branches. In total we collected 90 kg of carob!

One of the carob trees we used for harvesting in Los Molinos del Rio Aguas
One of the carob trees we used for harvesting in Los Molinos del Rio Aguas
An acrobatic harvester!
An acrobatic harvester!

Some carob will be cleaned and the seeds stored in the seed bank of the Drylands Management Department. They will be used later during interventions for reforestation in lands affected by erosion and soil degradation. Others of these carobs will be sold to a pig-farm as pig-food as an extra-income for Sunseed Desert Technology. And finally, they will also be used by the Sustainable Living Department for cooking purposes. Because it is rich in natural sugars and has a kind of “chocolate taste” is a good local alternative to sweet foods. In addition, it has a lot of health benefits because of the important amounts of proteins, fibers, minerals and vitamins. Carob is used for its medicinal properties too, mainly for digestive health (protecting intestinal mucosa), or because of its high amounts of tannins, a powerful antioxidant, which helps combat premature cell deterioration (preventing cancer formation).

Carob fruit and seeds
Carob fruit and seeds

Hemos estado recogiendo algarroba de tres árboles que se encuentran aquí en Los Molinos del Rio Aguas. Parte de la algarroba la recogimos una a una pero cuando no podíamos alcanzarla zarandeamos las ramas con un palo para que cayera sobre una malla que previamente había sido tendida en el suelo. A alguno de nosotros le invadió la vena animal y como monos recogían el fruto! En total conseguimos reunir 90kg de algarroba.

Uno de los árboles de donde se recogió algarroba
Uno de los árboles de donde se recogió algarroba
Una voluntaria acróbata!
Una voluntaria acróbata!

Parte de la cosecha se limpiará y las semillas serán guardadas en el banco de semillas del Departamento de Tierras Áridas. Se usarán en un futuro en las intervenciones del departamento para reforestar parcelas erosionadas y/o degradadas. Otra parte de la cosecha se venderá como comida de animales, siendo un ingreso extra para Sunseed. El resto será usado por el Departamento de Vida Sostenible con fines culinarios. La algarroba se puede usar como una alternativa local para endulzar las comidas ya que es rica en azúcares naturales y tiene un sabor similar al chocolate. Además, tiene muchos beneficios para la salud por su contenido importante en proteínas, fibra, minerales y vitaminas. Ésta es también usada por sus propiedades medicinales, principalmente para el sistema digestivo ya que protege la mucosa intestinal, o por su alto contenido en taninos, antioxidante que ayuda a combatir los primeros signos del envejecimiento y el deterioro de las células.

Una vaina de algarroba y sus semillas
Una vaina de algarroba y sus semillas
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Drylands Management, Eco Construction

We have finally built the greenhouse for the seedlings from our nursery so they can spend the winter calentitas!

We are in a desert climate zone, so that the amplitude of temperature between day and night is quite large, and not only that, but the night temperature tends to be very low, causing frost. This situation is more pronounced in the botanical garden, as it is in a lower part of the valley, seriously affecting seedlings from the nursery.

In the nursery we germinated seeds that were collected during the past year for revegetation and regeneration of the area, and used as resources, such as carob. The seedlings that will be moved to the greenhouse are: albaida and albaidilla, genista, retama, black hawthorn and carob tree. Carob is the plant most affected by frost. The temperatures below 5 ° C can cause tree death, by the interruption of the flow of sap. Due to these reasons, we have built the greenhouse in the botanical garden, next to the nursery, in a sunny spot.

First, we have taken measurements of a similar structure from one of the gardens and adapted them to the space we have in the botanical garden. We dug a hole in each corner where the arches were placed and filled with gravel to support the structure, which once placed were covered with plaster and soil. The structure has been made with reed ​​(peeled and cleaned) using a very simple technique: two bunches of about seven reeds are joined together to make the main arches, adding reinforcements in the area of attachment. These are carefully placed with the ends in each opposite hole (not across!) clutching the arcs to maintain the position. Two other arcs are placed to and from the bases of the main arches, across this time.

Once the structure is in place, the doors are installed in the center of the main arches and attached to the ground like the arches are held.
Next, a trench is dug around the perimeter of the structure and the plastic cover is placed. This is tensed and is buried in the trench. Finally, the gates are placed and plants, etc are moved in to the inside of the greenhouse, and enjoy!

Greenhouse inside
Greenhouse inside
Greenhouse outside
Greenhouse outside

Finalmente hemos construido el invernadero para que las plantas de nuestro vivero pasen el invierno calentitas!

Nos encontramos en una zona de clima desértico, por lo que la amplitud de temperatura entre el día y la noche es bastante grande, y no solo eso, sino que la temperatura nocturna tiende a ser muy baja, provocando heladas. Esta situación se ve más acusada en el jardín botánico, ya que se encuentra en la parte baja del valle, afectando gravemente a las plántulas del vivero.

En el vivero hemos germinado las semillas que fueron recogidas durante el año pasado para revegetación y regeneración de la zona, y aprovechamiento de recursos, como es el caso del algarrobo. Las plántulas que moveremos al invernadero son: albaida y albaidilla, genista, retama, espino negro y algarrobo. El algarrobo es la planta que más se ve afectada por las heladas. Las temperaturas inferiores a 5º C pueden originar la muerte del árbol, por la paralización de la circulación de la savia. Por ello, el invernadero lo hemos construido en el jardín botánico, donde llega el sol todo el día y cerca del vivero.

Primero se tomaron medidas de una estructura similar de uno de los huertos y se adaptaron al espacio que tenemos en el jardín botánico. Se cavó un agujero en cada esquina donde se colocaron los arcos y se rellenaron con grava para apoyo de la estructura, y una vez colocada se cubrió con yeso y tierra. La estructura la hemos hecho de caña (pelada y limpia) usando una técnica muy sencilla: se unen ramos de unas siete cañas entre sí para hacer los arcos principales, añadiendo refuerzos en la zona de unión. Estos se colocan cuidadosamente con las puntas en cada agujero que tienen enfrente sujetándose los arcos para que mantengan la posición. Otros dos arcos deben de ser colocados desde y hasta las bases de los principales en forma de cruz.

Una vez la estructura esté colocada, se instalan las puertas en el centro de los arcos principales y se sujetan al suelo igual que los arcos.

A continuación, se cava una zanja en el perímetro de la estructura y se coloca el plástico que la cubrirá. Este se tensa y se entierra en la zanja. Por último, se colocan las puertas y se trasladan las plantas, etc, a su interior, y a disfrutar!

Invernadero por dentro
Invernadero por dentro
Invernadero por fuera
Invernadero por fuera
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Drylands Management, Tutorial

After a series of interventions in Arizona’s land, we have done the ultimate one!

In the two gullies in the plot, we have built reed and woody barriers to stop soil erosion. The barriers have been interconnected through reed biorolls which were placed using the Key Line technique, addressing the water from the gullies to the slopes to make it more accessible for the plants in them at the same time that erosion is reduce too. Plants have been planted behind the barriers and along the biorolls adding compost as nutrient resource and cactus as water resource. The holes were filled up with water before planting and all has been covered with mulch.

Compost and cactus mixed
Compost and cactus mixed

It is interesting to know that those plants that had been for too long in a pot need regular watering and in order to face that the following was done:

Bottles of five liters had a hole made in the bottom with a hot metal stick. This hole shouldn’t be bigger than the thickness of the rope that is going to be put in and laid around the bottom of the plant hole. Once the rope is properly glued to the bottle, it’s filled up with water and and placed in the plant hole. By leaving the lid half opened the water will be driven out of the water bottle to the soil along the rope when it is dry keeping a balance of dampness between the two environments, basically an osmosis process.

Water bottles
Water bottles
Water bottle in place
Water bottle in place

Below the gullies there is a flat area where some work has taken place too.

Trenches were dug taking into account the entrance of water from the gullies (as ripples created by a rock thrown into a pond) and with the same technique applied to the bio-rolls pursuing similar effect. The arriving water filters through and gets absorbed by vegetation planted in the terraces built along them. Along the terraces a mound like pile of earth was created as protection for the planting.

The area between and in the terraces was covered with mulching as in the gullies.

Flat area
Flat area

The plants used for this last intervention were mastic (Pistacia lentiscus), retama (Retama sphaerocarpa), olive trees (Olea europaea), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), efedra (Ephedra fragilis) and carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua).

Plants used

Lastly, another project was carried out in Alan’s land, a nearby Sunseed’s plot:

Retama is a plant that has a symbiosis relationship with a mycorrhiza found in the soil. Six plants have been planted near an adult retama, and another six far from retama and any other plant. The growth is going to be monitor to see the development of both groups.

Retama project with adult retama a)
Retama project with adult retama a)
Retama project with adult retama b)
Retama project with adult retama b)
Retama project without adult retama a)
Retama project without adult retama a)
Retama project without adult retama b)
Retama project without adult retama b)

Después de una serie de interven­ciones en la parcela de Arizona ya hemos terminado la última!

En las dos cárcavas de la parcela hemos construido barreras de caña y ramas de granado e higuera para parar la erosión del suelo. Las barreras están interconectadas con biorrollos de caña que fueron colocados según la técnica de la Línea Clave, redirigiendo el agua de las cárcavas hacia las laderas haciendo que ésta sea más accesible para las plantas en esa área y reduciendo así la erosión en las cárcavas al mismo tiempo. Se han plantado plantas detrás de las barreras y a lo largo de los biorrollos añadiendo compostaje como fuente de nutrientes y chumba como fuente de agua. Los agujeros preparados para plantar se rellenaron de agua antes de poner la planta y todo se cubrió con acolchado.

Cárcavas
Cárcavas
Mezcla de compost y chumba
Mezcla de compost y chumba

Es interesante saber que aquellas plantas que habían estado por mucho tiempo en una maceta necesitan que sean regadas regularmente y para arreglar esa situación se hizo lo siguiente:

Se agujerearon por el fondo botellas de agua de cinco litros con una barra de metal caliente. El agujero no debe de ser más ancho que la cuerda que se va a colocar desde ese punto y el suelo en el agujero alrededor de la planta. Una vez que la cuerda se pega correctamente a la botella, ésta se llena con agua y se coloca en el agujero de la planta. Dejando la tapa de la botella medio abierta, el agua se trasladará de la botella al medio externo cuando éste se seque para mantener un balance de agua entre los dos medios, básicamente se trata de un proceso de ósmosis.

Botellas de agua
Botellas de agua
Botella de agua colocada junto a la planta
Botella de agua colocada junto a la planta

A los pies de las cárcavas hay un área llana donde también se ha estado trabajando. Se cavaron zanjas teniendo en cuenta la entrada de agua desde las cárcavas (como olas creadas por una piedra que se tira a un estanque) y con el mismo gradiente impuesto a los biorrollos, buscando el mismo efecto. El agua se filtraría en las zanjas y sería absorbida por las plantas que se han plantado en las terrazas. A lo largo de las terrazas se trazó una línea como un montículo de arena como protección para las plantas.

El área entre y en las terrazas se cubrió con acolchado igual que en las cárcavas.

Área llana
Área llana

Las especies utilizadas en esta intervención han sido el lentisco (Pistacia lentiscus), retama (Retama sphaerocarpa), olivos (Olea europaea), el romero (Rosmarinus officinalis), efedra (Ephedra fragilis) y algarrobos (Ceratonia siliqua),

Plantas usadas
Plantas usadas

Por último, a la misma vez que este proyecto, otro se llevó a cabo en la parcela de Alan, cerca de Arizona:

La retama es una planta que establece una simbiosis con la micorriza que se encuentra en el suelo. Seis retamas se plantaron cerca de una retama adulta y otras seis se plantaron lejos de retamas y cualquier otra planta. El crecimiento de estos dos grupos va a ser monitoreado para ver el desarrollo de los mismos.

Proyecto de la retama con una retama adulta a)
Proyecto de la retama con una retama adulta a)
Proyecto de la retama con una retama adulta b)
Proyecto de la retama con una retama adulta b)
Proyecto de la retama sin retama adulta a)
Proyecto de la retama sin retama adulta a)
Proyecto de la retama sin retama adulta b)
Proyecto de la retama sin retama adulta b)
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